DISINTEGRASI DINDING SEL MIKROBA LUMPUR BIOLOGI INSTALASI PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH INDUSTRI KERTAS SECARA TERMO-ALKALI DAN SONIKASI (Microbial Cell Wall Disintegration of Biological Sludge from Paper Industry Wastewater Treatment Plant using Thermo - Alkaline and Sonication)

Saepulloh Saepulloh(1*), Rina Susilowati Soetopo(2), Krisna Septiningrum(3)
(1) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(2) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(3) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25269/jsel.v6i01.63

Abstract

Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) of paper mills generates biological sludge containing organic compounds such as microbial biomass in the range of 60-90%. The sludge is voluminous and difficult dewatered causing problems during handling and utilization. Microbial cell wall disintegration using thermo-alkaline and sonication disrupt microbial cell walls so sludge handling and utilization is easier for further use. Cell wall disruption of biological sludge pre-treatment using thermo-alkaline, sonication  and  combination  of  both  treatments  has  been  conducted.  Thermo-alkaline  treatment  was carried out for 24 hours with temperature variations (20oC, 37oC, 50oC) and pH (9, 10, 11); sonication treatment  was  performed  at  high  frequency  (30  ±  10  kHz)  with  a  variation  of  time  (15,  30,  and  45 minutes), and the combination of both treatments was performed at the optimum conditions respectively. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated based on the increase of soluble COD (CODf) and ratio of CODf /CODT with univariate statistical test (SPSS 16.0). The results showed that the thermo-alkaline treatment is more effective than sonication and combination treatment. The best condition was obtained when sludge treated with thermo-alkaline treatment at pH 10 and temperature 37°C, CODf was increased 439.91%, with ratio of CODf/CODT 0,128.

Keywords: biological sludge, cell disintegration, thermo-alkaline, sonication, CODf




ABSTRAK


Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL) industri kertas menghasilkan lumpur biologi yang mengandung senyawa organik berupa biomassa mikroba berkisar 60-90%. Lumpur tersebut bersifat voluminousdan sulit dihilangkan airnya sehingga menimbulkan masalah pada penanganan dan pemanfaatannya. Perlakuan termo-alkali dan sonikasi merupakan metode disintegrasi sel terhadap lumpur biologi yang dilakukan untuk memecah dinding sel mikroba sehingga dapat lebih mudah dalam penanganan dan pemanfaatan selanjutnya. Penelitian termo-alkali, sonikasi, dan gabungannya terhadap lumpur biologi telah dilakukan. Perlakuan termo-alkali dilakukan selama 24 jam dengan variasi suhu (20oC, 37oC, 50oC) dan pH (9, 10, 11); perlakuan sonikasi dilakukan pada frekuensi tinggi (30 ± 10 kHz) dengan variasi waktu (15, 30, dan 45 menit), dan perlakuan gabungan termoalkali dan sonikasi dilakukan pada kondisi optimum masing-masing. Efektivitas perlakuan dievalusi berdasarkan peningkatan COD terlarut (CODf) dan rasio CODf /CODT dengan uji statistik univariate(SPSS 16.0). Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan termo-alkali lebih efektif dibandingkan dengan perlakuan sonikasi dan gabungannya. Kondisi terbaik perlakuan termo-alkali adalah pada pH 10 dan suhu 37oC dengan peningkatan CODf 439,91% dengan rasio CODf /CODT 0,128.

Kata kunci : Lumpur biologi, disintegrasi sel, termo-alkali, sonikasi, CODf

Full Text:

PDF

References

Alvarez, J.M., Mac, S., dan Llabrès, P. 2000. Anaerobic Digestion of Organik Solid Wastes: An Overview of Research Achievements and Perspectives. Bioresource Technology. 74, 3-16

Appels, L., Baeyens, J., Degrève, J., dan Dewil, R. 2008. Principles and Potential of The Anaerobic Digestion of Waste-Activated Sludge. Progress in Energy and Combustion

Science. 34, 755–781

Appels, L., Degrève J., der Bruggen, B.V., Impe, J.V., dan Dewil, R. 2010. Influence of Low Temperature Thermal Pre-treatment on Sludge Solubilisation, Heavy Metal Release

and Anaerobic Digestion. Bioresource Technology. 101, 5743–5748

Bayr, S., Kaparaju, P., dan Rintala, J. 2013. Screening Pretreatment Methods to Enhance Termophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Treatment Secondary Sludge. Chemical Engineering Journal. 223,

–486

Bougrier, C., Delgenès, J.P. dan Carrère, H. 2006. Combination of Thermal Treatments and Anaerobic Digestion to Reduce Sewage Sludge Quantity and Improve Biogas

Yield. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 84, B4, 280–284

Bougrier, C., Delgenès, J.P. dan Carrère, H. 2007. Impacts of Thermal Pre-treatments on The Semi Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Waste Activated Sludge. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 34, 20–27

Bougrier, C, Delgenès, J.P. dan Carrère, H. 2008. Effect of thermal treatments on five different waste activated sludge samples solubilisation, physical properties and anaerobic digestion. Chemical Engineering Journal. 139, 236-244

Buyukkamaci, N. dan Koken, E. 2010. Economic Evaluation of Alternative Waste Water Treatment Plant Options for Pulp and Paper Industry. Science of the Total Environment. 408: 6070–6078.

Cardell, L. 2010. “Anaerobic Digestion of Pre-treated Biological Sludge from Pulp and Paper Industry Using Heat, Alkali, and Electroporation”, Thesis, Department of Thematic Studies – Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University,Linköping, Swedia

Carrere, H., Dumas, C., Battimelli, A., Batstone, D.J., Delgenès, J.P., Steyer, J.P., dan Ferrer, I. 2010. Pretreatment Methods to Improve Sludge Anaerobic Degradability: A Review. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 183, 1–15

Carrere, H., Rafrafi, Y., Battimelli, A., Torrijos, M., Delgenes, J.P., dan Motte, C. 2012. Improving Methane Production During The Codigestion of Waste-Activated Sludge and Fatty Wastewater: Impact of Thermo-Alkaline Pretreatment on Batch and Semi-Continuous Processes. Chemical Engineering Journal. 210, 404–409

Davidson, A. dan Jansen, J.L.C. 2006. Pre-treatment of Wastewater Sludge before Anaerobic Digestion-Hygienisation, Ultrasonic Treatment, and Enzyme Dosing. Vatten. 62, 335–340

Dhar, B.R., Nakhla, G., dan Ray, M.B. 2012. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Ultrasound and Thermal Pretreatments for Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion of Municipal Waste Activated Sludge. Waste Management. 32, 542–549

Elbeshbishy, E., Aldin, A., Hafez, H., Nakhla, G., Ray, M. 2011. Impact of Ultrasonication of Hog Manure on Anaerobic Digestability. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 18, 164–171

Elliot, A., dan Mahmood, T. 2007. Pretreatment Technologies for Advancing Anaerobic Digestion of Pulp and Paper Biotreatment Residues. Water Research. 41, 4273 – 4286

Gavala, H.N., Yenal, U., Skiadas, I.V., Westermann, P., dan Ahring, B.K. 2003. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. Effect of pre-treatment at elevated temperature. Water Research. 37, 4561-4572

Grübel, K., dan Suschka, J. 2014. Hybrid Alkali-Hydrodynamic Disintegration of Waste-Activated Sludge before Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion Process. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 22, 10, 7258-7270

Harris D.C. 2007. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 7th ed, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York

Li, L., Liu, G., Jin, R., Zhou, J., dan Wang, J. 2010. Kinetics Model for Combined (Alkaline + Ultrasonic) Sludge Disintegration. Bioresource Technology. 101, 8555–8557

Neyens, E., dan Baeyens, J. 2003. A review of thermal sludge pre-treatment processes to improve dewaterability. Journal of Hazard Mater. 98, 51–67

Pilli, S., Bhunia, P., Yan, S., LeBlanc, R.J., Tyagi, R.D., dan Surampalli, R.Y. 2011. Ultrasonic Pretreatment of Sludge: A Review. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 18, 1–18

Rani, R.U., Kumar, S.A., Yeom, I.T., Banu, J.R. 2012. Low Temperature Thermo-Chemical Pretreatment of Dairy Waste Activated Sludge For Anaerobic Digestion Process.Bioresource Technology. 103, 415–424

Soetopo, R.S., Purwati, S., Setiawan, Y., Wardhana, K.H. 2011. Efektivitas Proses Kontinyu Digestasi Anaerobik Dua Tahap pada Pengolahan Lumpur Biologi Industri Kertas. Jurnal Riset Industri. Vol. V, No.2, 131-142

Tasbieh, H., Adrianto, A., Sri, R.M. 2015. Pengaruh Waktu Detensi Terhadap Efisiensi Penyisihan COD Limbah Cair Pulp dan Kertas dengan Reaktor Kontak Stabilisasi. Jornal FTEKNIK. Vol. 2, No. 1, 1-9

Tyagi, V.K., Lo, S.L., dan Rajpal, A. 2014. Chemically Coupled Microwave and Ultrasonic Pre-Hydrolysis of Pulp and Paper Mill Waste-Activated Sludge: Effect on Sludge Solubilisation and Anaerobic Digestion. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 21, 6205–6217

Weemaes, M. dan Verstraete, W.H. 1998. Evaluation of Current Wet Sludge Disintegration Techniques. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 73, 83–92

Wood, N., Tran, H., dan Master, E. 2009. Pretreatment of Pulp Mill Secondary Sludge for High-Rate Anaerobic Conversion to Biogas. Bioresource Technology. 100, 5729–


Article Metrics


Abstract view : 376 times
PDF view : 330 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 JURNAL SELULOSA
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.