Efektivitas Pemurnian Asap Cair Biomassa Serbuk Gergaji dengan Distilasi, Adsorpsi Zeolite dan Karbon Aktif

Wahyu Anggo Rizal(1*), Ria Suryani(2), Muslih Anwar(3), Dwi Joko Prasetyo(4), Satriyo Krido Wahono(5), Wuri Apriyana(6), Tri Hadi Jatmiko(7), Andri Suwanto(8), Roni Maryana(9), Hernawan Hernawan(10), Sugeng Hariyadi(11)
(1) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(2) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(3) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(4) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(5) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(6) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(7) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(8) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(9) Pusat Riset Kimia Maju, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(10) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(11) Pusat Riset Teknologi dan Proses Pangan, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25269/jsel.v12i01.353

Abstract

Effectiveness of Liquid Smoke Purification of Sawdust by using Distillation Method, Zeolite and Active Carbon Adsorption

Abstract

Liquid smoke is a product resulting from the pyrolysis of biomass under conditions of minimal oxygen. The compounds of liquid smoke is influenced by the type of biomass, water content, process temperature and the length of pyrolysis time. In general, liquid smoke is dark brown in color with an acidic and has a unique aroma and taste, depending on the type of biomass. Liquid smoke chemical compounds characterize organoleptic, antimicrobial and antioxidant, in addition to functional compounds sometimes also produce harmful compounds such as a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and 2-propanone, 2-butanone, cyclopentanone which are toxic or carcinogenic. Crude liquid smoke may contain several mixtures of hazardous compounds depending on the process conditions, so it cannot be directly applied to food products. To get quality liquid smoke, it is necessary to carry out a purification process to reduce or eliminate harmful compounds. Methods that have been widely applied include distillation and adsorption processes. This study aims to measure the effectiveness of zeolite and activated carbon in the purification of liquid smoke with mixed sawdust biomass as raw material. Liquid smoke is purified by distillation, and adsorption with several adsorbents. The results obtained indicate that the liquid smoke still contains 2-propanone ,2-butanone and cyclopentanone. Zeolite ZG2 showed the best effectiveness in removing the three harmful compounds, while ZK1and Cca still left 2-propanone in liquid smoke. Thus zeolite ZG2 is effective as an absorbent in the purification of liquid smoke

Keywords: Liquid Smoke, Adsorption, Biomass, Sawdust

 

Abstrak

 

Asap cair adalah produk yang dihasilkan dari pirolisis biomassa pada kondisi minim oksigen. Komposisi senyawa asap cair dipengaruhi oleh jenis biomassa, kadar air, dan suhu proses serta lama waktu pirolisis. Pada umumnya asap cair berwarna cokelat tua dengan pH asam dan memiliki aroma serta rasa yang unik, tergantung dari jenis biomassanya. Senyawa kimia asap cair mencirikan sifat organoleptik, antimikroba dan antioksidan, selain senyawa fungsional terkadang juga menghasilkan senyawa berbahaya seperti kelompok senyawa Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, dan 2-propanone, 2-butanone, cyclopentanone yang bersifat toksik atau karsinogenik. Asap cair crude dimungkinkan terdapat beberapa campuran senyawa berbahaya tergantung dari kondisi prosesnya, sehingga tidak dapat secara langsung diaplikasikan untuk produk pangan. Untuk mendapatkan asap cair berkualita perlu dilakukan proses pemurnian untuk mengurangi atau menghilangkan senyawa berbahayanya. Metode yang telah banyak diaplikasikan antara lain dengan proses distilasi dan adsorpsi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur efektifitas zeolite dan karbon aktif dalam pemurnian asap cair dengan bahan baku biomasa serbuk gergaji campuran. Asap cair di lakukan pemurnian dengan destilasi, dan adsorpsi dengan beberapa adsorben. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa asap cair masih mengandung 2-propanone ,2-butanone dan cyclopentanone. ZG2 menunjukkan efektifitas yang paling baik mampu menghilangkan ketiga senyawa berbahaya tersebut sedangkan ZK1 dan Cca masih menyisakan 2-propanone dalam asap cair. Dengan demikian zeolite ZG2 efektif sebagai absorben dalam pemurnian asap cair

 

Kata kunci : Asap  Cair, Adsorpsi, biomassa, serbuk gergaji kayu

Keywords

liquid smoke; adsorption, biomass, sawdust; asap cair; adsorpsi; serbuk gergaji kayu

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