Karakterisasi Asap Cair Distilasi dan Terdistilasi Vakum dari Limbah Serasah Pinus

Wafa Karimatul Azmi(1), Ihak Sumardi(2*), Yoyo Suhaya(3)
(1) Teknologi Pascapanen, Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati, Institut Teknologi Bandung
(2) Teknologi Pascapanen, Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati, Institut Teknologi Bandung
(3) Teknologi Pascapanen, Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati, Institut Teknologi Bandung
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25269/jsel.v11i02.334

Abstract

Characterization of Distilled and Vacuum Distilled Liquid Smoke from Pine Litter Waste

Abstract

The solid waste of pine litter in the form of leaves, strobilus, and pine sawdust in the gondorukem and turpentine factories is still minimally utilized and causes environmental problems. However, the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content makes pine litter potential to be used as liquid smoke through the pyrolysis process. Liquid smoke has many benefits, including as an antiseptic and food preservative, but the characteristics of liquid smoke from pine litter are not yet known, so it requires further study. This research aims to determine the characteristics of smoke from pine litter waste, especially the composition of its chemical components, so the possibility for wider utilization can be known. The manufacture of liquid smoke is carried out through pyrolysis on pine litter waste, then given vacuum distillation treatment as a purification attempt. Tests on both samples using yield parameters, pH, total acid value, color organoleptic properties, specific gravity, and analysis of chemical components using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the yield of liquid smoke and charcoal from waste pine litter is low, but the yield of vacuum distilled liquid smoke is huge. The distilled liquid smoke had a darker color, lower pH, higher total acid, and higher specific gravity than vacuum distilled liquid smoke. In general, the chemical components identified in both groups are divided into carbonyl, aryl alkyl ether, alkane, organic acids, and phenolic compounds. The content of phenolic compounds and furfural as the dominant compounds opens opportunities for use as wood preservatives, food preservatives, topical analgesics, antiseptics, fungicides, and nematocides.

Keywords: liquid smoke, pine litter waste, vacuum distillation, chemical compound, characterization

Abstrak

Limbah padat serasah pinus berupa daun, strobilus, dan serbuk kayu pinus di pabrik gondorukem dan terpentin masih minim pemanfaatannya dan menimbulkan masalah lingkungan. Serasah pinus memiliki kandungan selulosa, hemiselulosa, dan lignin yang berpotensi untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai asap cair melalui proses pirolisis. Asap cair memiliki banyak manfaat, di antaranya sebagai bahan antiseptik dan pengawet makanan. Namun asap cair dari limbah serasah pinus masih belum diketahui karakteristiknya, sehingga membutuhkan pengkajian lebih lanjut. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik asap cair dari limbah serasah pinus berdasarkan sifat fisik dan susunan komponen kimianya, sehingga dapat diketahui peluang pemanfaatannya secara lebih luas. Pembuatan asap cair dilakukan melalui proses pirolisis pada limbah serasah pinus, lalu diberikan variasi perlakuan distilasi vakum sebagai upaya purifikasi. Pengujian pada asap cair distilasi dan asap cair terdistilasi vakum menggunakan parameter rendemen, pH, nilai total asam, sifat organoleptik warna, bobot jenis, dan analisis komponen kimia menggunakan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa asap cair dari limbah serasah pinus distilasi memiliki warna yang lebih gelap, pH yang lebih rendah, total asam yang lebih banyak, dan bobot jenis yang lebih tinggi daripada asap cair terdistilasi vakum. Secara umum, komponen kimia yang teridentifikasi pada keduanya terbagi dalam kelompok karbonil, alkana, aril alkil eter, senyawa asam, dan senyawa fenolik. Asap cair distilasi mengandung beberapa senyawa dari kelompok terpena dan terpenoid, sedangkan asap cair distilasi vakum mengandung senyawa dari kelompok alkaloid. Kandungan senyawa fenolik dan furfural sebagai senyawa dominan membuka peluang pemanfaatan sebagai pengawet kayu, pengawet makanan, analgesik topikal, antiseptik, fungisida, dan nematosida.

Kata Kunci: asap cair, limbah serasah pinus, distilasi vakum, komponen kimia, karakterisasi

Keywords

asap cair; limbah serasah pinus; distilasi vakum; komponen kimia; karakterisasi; liquid smoke; pine litter waste; vacuum distillation; chemical compound; characterization

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