Paper Bag Berbasis Pulp Tandan Kosong Sawit sebagai Alternatif Pengganti Polybag pada Pre-Nursery Perkebunan Sawit

Sari Farah Dina(1*), Lies Indriati(2), Nina Elyani(3), Muhammad Abror Zamzami(4)
(1) Institute for Research and Standardization Industry of Medan
(2) Center for Pulp and Paper - Ministry of Industry
(3) Center for Pulp and Paper - Ministry of Industry
(4) PT. Riset Perkebunan Nusantara
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25269/jsel.v11i01.330

Abstract

Indonesia merupakan penghasil limbah plastik terbesar kedua setelah Cina, sehingga telah menjadi isu lingkungan. Salah satu kemasan plastik yang banyak digunakan adalah kemasan untuk pembibitan terbuat dari plastik atau dikenal sebagai polybag. Guna membantu mengurangi penggunaan polybag, telah dilakukan percobaan skala laboratorium pembuatan paper bag dari pulp tandan kosong sawit (TKS) sebagai pengganti polybag. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan formula pembuatan paper bag yang dapat memenuhi persyaratan penggunaan akhirnya. Kegiatan dimulai dari penggilingan pulp TKS, dilanjutkan dengan pembuatan lembaran dengan variasi gramatur 90 g/m2 dan 125 g/m2 pada rentang pH 7-8. Dua jenis bahan kimia penguat basah yang digunakan yakni polietilen imin (PEI) dan poliamin epiklorohidrin (PAE), ditambahkan dengan variasi dosis 1,0 – 2,0 % terhadap berat kering serat. Karakteristik lembaran dievaluasi melalui uji ketahanan tarik, daya regang, daya serap energi (tensile energy absorption atau TEA), ketahanan retak, ketahanan sobek, persen rendemen kekuatan setelah mengalami pembasahan, dan porositas. Uji biodegradabilitas dilakukan untuk melihat tingkat afiliasi bahan kimia yang ditambahkan terhadap lingkungan dan rasio C/N (rasio karbon/nitrogen) untuk mengetahui kontribusinya terhadap proses pengomposan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa lembaran memiliki rendemen ketahanan tarik di atas 10%. Gramatur berkorelasi positif terhadap sifat kekuatan, dan negatif terhadap porositas. PAE memberikan sifat kekuatan lebih tinggi dibanding PEI, namun PEI memberikan persen rendemen ketahanan tarik lebih tinggi dibanding PAE. Seluruh bahan kimia yang ditambahkan dapat didegradasi lebih dari 60% dalam kurun waktu 28 hari namun uji rasio C/N menunjukkan hasil yang belum memadai. Formula optimum diperoleh pada gramatur 125 g/m2 dengan penambahan PEI 2%.

 

Paper Bag Based on Empty Fruit Bunches Pulp as an Alternative for Polybag Substitute in Pre-Nursery Palm Oil Plantation

Abstract

 

Indonesia is the second-largest plastic waste producer after China, so it has become an environmental issue. One of the plastic packagings which are large in consumption for nursery packaging is known as polybag. Therefore, to reduce the use of plastic bag, the laboratory scale experiment of paper bag made from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) as polybag substitutes has been done. This study aims to obtain a formula for paper bags that can meet the end using requirements. Laboratory scale started from beating the EFB pulp, then continued with handsheet making at grammage variation of 90 g/m2 and 125 g/m2 with a pH range of 7-8. Two types of wet strength agents were used, namely polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyamine epichlorohydrin (PAE) which were varied from 1.0 to 2.0% (%db of fiber). Sheet properties were evaluated through tensile and bursting strength, stretch, TEA tests, tearing resistance, % yield of strength after wetting, opacity, and porosity. A biodegradability test was conducted to determine the chemical’s affiliation level to the soil and the C/N ratio to know its contribution to the composting process. The results showed that the paper bag has a tensile strength yield above 10%. Grammage is directly proportional to strength properties and inversely to porosity. PAE gave higher strength than PEI but is lower in % yield of tensile strength. All added chemicals can be degraded by more than 60% within 28 days but the C/N ratio test showed inadequate results. The optimum formula was obtained at 125 g/m2 and PEI of 2.0%.

Keywords

tandan kosong sawit (TKS); kantong kertas; kekuatan basah; pembibitan; karakteristik; Empty fruit bunches (EFB); paper bag; wet strength; pre nuresery; characteristics

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