Sintesis Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose dari Serat Tandan Kosong Sawit dengan Hidrolisis Asam Oksalat

Rizka Karima(1*), Evana Yuanita(2), Bunda Amalia(3), Agustina Arianita(4), Tiara Mailisa(5), Bumiarto Nugroho(6)
(1) Balai Besar Kimia dan Kemasan
(2) Balai Besar Kimia dan Kemasan
(3) Balai Besar Kimia dan Kemasan
(4) Balai Besar Kimia dan Kemasan
(5) Balai Besar Kimia dan Kemasan
(6) Balai Besar Kimia dan Kemasan
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25269/jsel.v10i01.281

Abstract

Tandan Kosong Sawit (TKS) merupakan limbah padat dari industri pengolahan kelapa sawit yang melimpah di Indonesia dan mengandung banyak selulosa. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) dapat diproduksi dari serat TKS. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mensintesis MFC dari serat TKS melalui proses alkalisasi,  pemutihan dan hidrolisis. TKS dicacah dan dihaluskan hingga berukuran 60 mesh untuk proses pembuatan pulp TKS. Proses alkalisasi dilakukan dalam reaktor menggunakan 4% NaOH pada suhu 90˚C selama 2 jam dan dilanjutkan dengan proses pemutihan mengunakan 20% H2Opada suhu kamar selama 2 jam. Kemudian proses hidrolisis dilakukan menggunakan asam oksalat 5% pada suhu 80°C selama 1 jam. MFC yang dihasilkan dianalisis menggunakan Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Difraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) dan Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Hasil analisis FTIR menunjukkan bahwa adanya penurunan kadar lignoselulosa yang dikonfirmasi juga oleh hasil uji kuantitatif kadar lignin. Hasil uji XRD menunjukkan peningkatan nilai kristalinitas. Hasil uji TGA menunjukkan hidrolisis menggunakan asam oksalat 5% dapat meningkatkan area degradasi termal dan hasil FESEM menunjukkan telah terjadi proses fibrilisasi serat dan penurunan diameter ukuran serat dari 400 µm menjadi 10 µm. Dari hasil penelitian ini, jika dilihat dari hasil kristalinitas, sifat termal dan ukuran diameter serat, proses hidrolisis menggunakan asam oksalat 5% adalah proses yang baik untuk pembuatan MFC dari serat TKS.

 

Synthesis of Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose (MFC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches (OPEFB) Fiber with Oxalic Acid Hydrolysis

Abstract

Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches (OPEFB), which is a solid waste from the palm oil processing industry, has a high availability in Indonesia, and it contains a lot of cellulose. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) can be produced from OPEFB fiber. This work’s objective was to synthesize MFC from fibers of OPEFB through the process of alkalization, bleaching process, and the hydrolysis process using an oxalic acid solution. The procedure began chopped fiber until 60 mesh, and alkalization process of pulping OPEFB in the reactor using 4% NaOH at the temperature of 90 ˚C for 2 hours. It continued with the addition of 20% H2O2 at room temperature for 2 hours. The hydrolysis process is carried out using an oxalic acid 5 % at temperature of 80°C for 1 hour. MFC was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The FTIR analysis showed that the quantitative result also confirmed a decrease in lignocellulose content. XRD result showed an increase in the value of crystallinity. TGA results showed that hydrolysis using oxalic acid can increase the area of thermal degradation, and FESEM results showed there is a decreasing diameter of fiber from 400 µm to 10 µm. From the results of this study, when viewed from the results of crystallinity, thermal properties, and size of the fiber diameter, the hydrolysis process using 5% oxalic acid is a good process for making MFCs from TKS fibers.

Keywords

micro-fibrillated cellulose; OPEFB; oxalic acid

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abraham, E. et al. (2011) ‘Extraction of nanocellulose fibrils from lignocellulosic fibers: A novel approach’, Carbohydrate Polymers. Elsevier Ltd., 86(4), pp. 1468–1475. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.06.034.

Abraham, E. et al. (2013) ‘Environmental friendly method for the extraction of coir fibre and isolation of nanofibre’, Carbohydrate Polymers. Elsevier Ltd., 92(2), pp. 1477–1483. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.10.056.

Ahmad, Y. et al. (2015) ‘Uji Karakterisasi Mikrokristalin Selulosa dari Nata De Soya Sebagai Eksipien Tablet’, Farmasains, 6(2), p. 269 : 274.

Barlianti, V. et al. (2015) ‘Effect of Alkaline Pretreatment on Properties of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Waste’, Procedia Chemistry, 16, pp. 195–201. doi: 10.1016/j.proche.2015.12.036.

Burhani, D. et al. (2017) ‘The effect of two-stage pretreatment on the physical and chemical characteristic of oil palm empty fruit bunch for bioethanol production’, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1904. doi: 10.1063/1.5011873.

Chandra, J., Goerge, C. and Narayankutty, S. K. (2016) ‘Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanofibrils from Arecanut Husk Fibre’, Carbohydrate Polymers, 142, pp. 158–166. Available at: https://doi.org/101016/j.carbpor.2016.01.05.

Chen, W. et al. (2011) ‘Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from four plant cellulose fibers using a chemical-ultrasonic process’, Cellulose, 18(2), pp. 433–442. doi: 10.1007/s10570-011-9497-z.

Dewanti, D. P. (2018) ‘Potensi Selulosa dari Limbah Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit untuk Bahan Baku Bioplastik Ramah Lingkungan’, Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan, 19(1), p. 81. doi: 10.29122/jtl.v19i1.2644.

Haafiz, M. et al. (2014) ‘Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Oil Palm Biomass Microcrystalline Cellulose’, Carbohydrate Polymers, 1(103), pp. 119–125.

Ismojo et al. (2017) ‘Preparation of micro-fibrillated cellulose from sorghum fibre through alkalization and acetylation treatments’, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 223(1). doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/223/1/012057.

Lavoine, N. et al. (2012) ‘Microfibrillated cellulose - Its barrier properties and applications in cellulosic materials: A review’, Carbohydrate Polymers. Elsevier Ltd., 90(2), pp. 735–764. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.05.026.

Mulyawan, A. S., Wibi Sana, A. and Kaelani, Z. (2015) ‘Identification of Physical and Thermal Properties of’, Arena Tekstil, 30(1), pp. 75–82.

Osvaldo, Z. S., Panca Putra, S. and Faizal, M. (2012) ‘Pengaruh Konsentrasi Asam dan Waktu pada Proses Hidrolisis dan Fermentasi Pembuatan Biotenaol dari Alang-alang’, Jurnal Teknik Kimia, 18(2), pp. 52–62.

Rezayati Charani, P. et al. (2013) ‘Production of microfibrillated cellulose from unbleached kraft pulp of Kenaf and Scotch Pine and its effect on the properties of hardwood kraft: Microfibrillated cellulose paper’, Cellulose, 20(5), pp. 2559–2567. doi: 10.1007/s10570-013-9998-z.

Syahbanu, I., Anugraini, A. and Melati, H. A. (2018) ‘Kinetika Degradasi Selulosa Asetat dari Sabut Pinang’, Indonesian Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1(1), pp. 24–29.

Syverud, K. and Stenius, P. (2009) ‘Strength and barrier properties of MFC films’, Cellulose, 16(1), pp. 75–85. doi: 10.1007/s10570-008-9244-2.

Tristantini, D., Dewanti, D. P. and Sandra, C. (2017) ‘Isolation and characterization of α-cellulose from blank bunches of palm oil and dry jackfruit leaves with alkaline process NaOH continued with bleaching process H2O2’, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1904. doi: 10.1063/1.5011858.

Wang, W. et al. (2016) ‘Structural Changes of Lignin after Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment and Its Effect on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis’, BioMed Research International, 3(21), pp. 23–31. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/8568604.

Xu, W. et al. (2017) ‘Mild Oxalic-Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis as a Novel Approach to Prepare Cellulose Nanocrystals’, ChemNanoMat, 3(2), pp. 109–119. doi: 10.1002/cnma.201600347.

Yasa, I. W. S. et al. (2020) ‘Sifat Fisik Dan Mekanis Lembaran Kering Selulosa Bakteri Berbahan Dasar Limbah Hasil Pertanian’, Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem, 8(1), pp. 89–99. doi: 10.29303/jrpb.v8i1.170.

Yuanita, E. et al. (2015) ‘Multistages Preparation for Microfibrillated Celluloses Based on Arenga Pinnata “ijuk” fiber’, Procedia Chemistry, 16, pp. 608–615. doi: 10.1016/j.proche.2015.12.099.


Article Metrics


Abstract view : 15 times
PDF view : 7 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 JURNAL SELULOSA
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.