PEMBENTUKAN LUMPUR GRANUL DALAM PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH PEMUTIHAN PULP DENGAN REAKTOR UP-FLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET (UASB)

Yusup Setiawan(1*), Sri Purwati(2), Kristaufan Joko Pramono(3), Rina Susilowati Soetopo(4)
(1) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(2) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(3) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(4) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract

UASB reactor is not used yet by pulp and paper industries in Indonesia in treating their wastewater caused by granular sludge must be imported and needs high skill in the operation. To anticipate the more stringent of effluent standard and implementation of Adsorbale Organic halide (AOX) as a key parameter, UASB reactor has a good prospect to be used in treating of pulp and paper wastewater.

In the beginning of experiment, UASB reactor was operated with the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days and OLR of 0.10 – 0.23 kgCOD/m3.day for 141 days. UASB reactor was then operated with the HRT of 19 hrs and OLR of 0.80 – 3.25 kgCOD/m3.day for 287 days. Since day 288th, UASB reactor was operated in the HRT of 12 hrs and OLR of 1.92 – 5.0 kgCOD/m3.day.In this condition, micronutrient solution in the amount of 1 mL/L was added into feed wastewater of UASB reactor to accelerate the growth of granular sludge. Concentration of parameters such as COD, BOD, TSS, pH, and Adsobable Organic Halides (AOX) were analyzed. Sludge characteristic was tested and observed by Light Optical Microscope Leica DMLM and S4E and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Philips FEI Quanta 200. Settling rate of granular sludge was also measured.

The result showed  that on the HRT of 12 hrs and the OLR of 1.92 – 5.0 kgCOD/m3.day with the up-flow velocity of 0,16 m/hr, treatment system by UASB reactor could reduce COD of 34.23 – 90.28% (average of 67.41%) and AOX of 59.65 – 70.12% (average of 67.93%). The addition of micronutrient solution in the amount of 1 mL/L had significant effect to the growth of microorganism and the granular sludge formation.  The formed granular sludge had black-brownies color, VSS/SS ratio of 0.72, diameter up to 2 mm, specific gravity (sg) of 1.12, and high settling rate of 54.6 m/hr. Bacterial population content of the granular sludge consist of filament bacteria (Methanotric sp.) with the diameter of 1 – 2.94 µm and coccus bacteria (Methanosarcina) with the diameter of 2 - 29 µm. This is very useful and has a role in the sludge granulation and the reduction of organic compounds.

 

INTISARI

 

Sampai saat ini industri pulp dan kertas di Indonesia belum ada yang menggunakan reaktor UASB dalam pengolahan air limbahnya, karena lumpur granul masih harus diimpor dan diperlukan ketrampilan tinggi dalam mengoperasikannya. Untuk mengantisipasi baku mutu buangan air limbah yang semakin ketat dan penerapan Adsorbable Organic Halide (AOX) sebagai parameter kunci, reaktor UASB mempunyai prospek yang baik untuk digunakan dalam pengolahan air limbah industri pulp dan kertas.

Pada permulaan percobaan reaktor UASB dioperasikan dengan waktu tinggal 3 hari dengan beban organik sekitar 0,10 – 0,23 kgCOD/m3.hari selama 141 hari. Setelah itu reaktor UASB dioperasikan dengan waktu tinggal  19 jam  dan  beban organik antara 0,80 – 3,25 kgCOD/m3.hari sampai hari 287. Sejak hari 288, reaktor UASB dioperasikan dengan waktu tinggal 12 jam dan beban organik antara 1,92 – 5,0 kgCOD/m3.hari. Pada kondisi tersebut ke dalam umpan reaktor UASB ditambahkan larutan mikronutrisi untuk mempercepat pertumbuhan lumpur granul sebanyak 1 mL/L. Kadar  parameter COD, BOD, TSS, pH, dan Adsobable Organic Halides (AOX)  influen dan effluen dianalisa. Karakteristik lumpur diamati dan diuji menggunakan Light Optical Microscope Leica DMLM dan S4E dan Scanning Electrone Microscope (SEM) Philips FEI Quanta 200. Kecepatan pengendapan lumpur granul juga diukur.

Hasil menunjukkan bahwa pada waktu tinggal 12 jam dan beban organik antara 1,92 – 5,0 kgCOD/m3.hari  dengan up-flow velocity = 0,16 m/jam, sistem pengolahan dengan reaktor UASB dapat mereduksi COD = 34,23% – 90,28% (rata-rata = 67,41%) dan AOX = 59,65% – 70,12% (rata-rata = 67,93%). Penambahan larutan mikronutrisi sebanyak 1 mL/L mempunyai pengaruh signifikan dalam pertumbuhan mikrorganisme dan pembentukan lumpur granul. Lumpur granul yang terbentuk  berwarna hitam kecoklatan, memiliki VSS/SS = 0,72,  dengan diameter mencapai 2 mm, dengan nilai specific gravity (sg) 1,12  dan memiliki kecepatan pengendapan tinggi mencapai 54,6 m/jam. Populasi bakteri pada lumpur granul diantaranya terkomposisi dari bakteri filament (Methanotric sp.) berdiameter antara 1 – 2,94 µm dan coccus (Methanosarcina) berdiameter antara 2 - 29 µm yang sangat berperan pada granulasi lumpur dan reduksi senyawa organik.

Keywords

Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB); MLSS; MLVSS; AOX; granular sludge; methanotric sp.; methanosarcina

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