TINGKAT TOKSISITAS PENTAKLOROFENOL TERHADAP ORGANISME AIR TAWAR

Rina Susilowati Soetopo(1*), Krisna Adhitya Wardana(2), Ilisya P. Indrasari(3)
(1) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(2) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(3) Universitas Islam Bandung
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25269/jsel.v42i2.192

Abstract

Pentachlorophenol is one of the AOX compound components found in pulp bleaching effluents. Pentachlorophenol is bioaccumulative with the  bioconcentration factor in  Daphnia magna about 400 ( OSPARCOM, 1999). The research on the influence of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organism Daphnia magna have been conducted at neutral pH and temperature 29oC. It was carried out in 2 stages that are acute toxicity test for 24 hour and chronic toxicity test for one cycle live based on OECD guidelines 202 (1984). Acute toxicity test carried out at a range pentachlorophenol concentration about 300 - 550 ppb. Chronic toxicity test conducted with the semi-static  method at three pentachlorophenol concentration namely 0,16 pp,; 1,6 ppb, and 16 ppb. Data of  acute toxicity test  are analyzed by probit analysis to calculate the 24 hour EC50 immobilization concentration (EC50-24h) with 95% confidence limit. Data from chronic toxicity test are calculated to find out daily survivorship, daily age specific fecundity, and net reproductive rate according to Sorensen ( 1996). The results of experiments indicate that pentachlorophenol have the EC50-24 hour value to Daphnia Magna at about 359 – 455 ppb. The chronic effect of pentachlorophenol to Daphnia magna are decreasing mean daily survivorship, mean daily age specific fecundity, and mean net reproductive rate.

 

INTISARI

 

Pentachlorophenol adalah salah satu komponen senyawa AOX yang terdapat dalam air limbah proses pemutihan pulp. Pentaklorofenol bersifat bioakumulatif dengan faktor biokonsentrasi dalam organisme Daphnia magna 400 (OSPARCOM, 1999). Percobaan pengaruh pentaklorofenol terhadap organisme perairan Daphnia magna telah dilakukan pada pH netral dan suhu sekitar 29oC. Percobaan dilakukan dalam 2 tahap yaitu uji toksisitas akut dilakukan selama 24 jam dan uji toksisitas kronis dilakukan selama satu siklus hidup mengacu pada metoda OECD 202 (1984). Uji toksisitas akut dilakukan pada 5 konsentrasi pentaklorofenol (300 – 550 ppb). Uji toksisitas kronis dilakukan dengan metoda semi statis pada 3 konsentrasi pentaklorofenol yaitu  0,16 ppb, 1,6 ppb dan 16 ppb. Terhadap data uji toksisitas akut dilakukan perhitungan nilai EC50 dengan analisa probit, dan terhadap data uji toksisitas kronis dilakukan perhitungan kesintasan harian (survivorship, Ix), fekunditas harian (age spesific fecundity, mx), dan laju reproduktif bersih (net reproductive rate, Ro) menurut Sorensen (1996). Hasil percobaan, menunjukkan bahwa pentaklorofenol memiliki nilai EC50-24jam terhadap organisme akuatik Daphnia magna berkisar antara 359 – 455 ppb dan bersifat  kronis. Efek kronis pentaklorofenol terhadap Daphnia magna adalah menurunkan kesintasan harian, fekunditas harian, dan laju reproduktif bersih.

Keywords

Pentachlorophenol; Daphnia magna; daily survivorship; daily age specific fecundity; net reproductive rate

Full Text:

PDF

References

Agency for Toxic substances and Diseases (ATSDR). 2001. Public Health Statement for Pentachlorophenol. [online]. Tersedia : http//pentachlorophenol/ATSDR – ToxFAO Pentachlorophenol.htm.

Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). 1991. Effluents from Pulp Mills using bleaching. Priority Substances List Assessment report no. 2. Minister of Supply and Services Canada Calogue No. En 40-215/2E ISBN 0-662-1X734-2.

Farrokhi, M. et.al. 2003. Oxidation of Pentachlorophenol by Fenton’s Reagent. Iranian J Publ Health. Vol. 32. No. 1. pp 6-10.

Forbes, V.E., dan T.L. Forbes. 1994. Ecotoxicology in theory and Practice. Departemen of marine Ecology and Microbiology. National Environmental Research Institute. Chapman & Hall. Denmark.

OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No 202 (1984) “Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilization Test and Reproduction Test”.

OECD Series on Testing and Assessment, No 55. 2006. Detailed Review Paper on Aquatic Arthropods in Life Cycle Toxicity Tests with Emphasis on Developmental, Reproductive and Endocrine Disruptive Effects.

Mitchel, S.E. and Lampert. 2000. Temperature Adaption in a Geographically Widespread Zooplanktoner- Daphnia magna. Blackwall Science Ltd Vol. 13. pp 371 – 380.

Parks, L.G., Leblane,G.A.,1996.Reduction in Steroid Hormone Biotransformation as a Biomarker of Pentachlorophenol Chronic Toxicity. Journal Aquatic Toxicology. Vol. 34. pp291-303. Elsever science. Amsterdam

Rossoulzadegan, M. And Nursei, A. 2001. An Investigation the Toxic effect of malation (organophosphate insecticide) on the Daphnia magna straus (Crustacean cladocera). Researce Article. Turkey: Edge University.

Radini, D.N., Gede Suantika, Taufikurrohman. 2004. Optimasi Suhu, pH serta jumlah dan Jenis pakanpada kultur Daphnia sp. Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi : Ekologi & Biodiversitas Tropika. Vol. 2. pp 23 -28.

Sorensen, R.F., 1996. Life-History Shcedule in Daphnia magna : An Ecological Activity for multiple laboratory sessions. Departement of Biological Sciences Purdue University.

Silva, J. et. al., 2001.Assesment of Sensitivity to Pentachlorofenol (PCP) in 18 Aquatic Species Using Acute and Chronic Ecotoxicity Bioassays, http//eer41017.pdf.

WHO, 2003. Health Risks of Persistent Organic pollutants From Long range transboundary air pollution. WHO Regional Office for Europe. Copenhagen. Denmark, http://www.euro.who.int.

WHO, Environmental Health Criteria No. 71. Pentachlorofenol. IPCS InChem, http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc71.htm#SubSectionNumber:7.2.2.


Article Metrics


Abstract view : 234 times
PDF view : 377 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 JURNAL SELULOSA
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.