TINGKAT TOKSISITAS AIR LIMBAH PROSES PEMUTIHAN PULP KERTAS TERHADAP IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Rina Susilowati Soetopo(1*), Sri Purwati(2), Yusup Setiawan(3), Krisna Septiningrum(4)
(1) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(2) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(3) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(4) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25269/jsel.v42i1.184

Abstract

Research on toxicity level of pulp bleaching effluent to carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.) has been conducted using OECD 203-1992 standard methods experiment. The waste water from chlorination and extraction unit in pulp conventional bleaching with AOX content of 33.04 mg/L and 20.06 mg/L was used as testing material. The research was conducted in two steps, i’e.: first acute toxicity (4 days) and chronic toxicity (28 days). Measured parameter are the amount of death test organism, operculum movement frequency (OMF) and the AOX content in animal tissues.

Result of the experiment showed that the acute toxicity of effluent from chlorination unit is more toxic than from the extraction unit, with LC50-96 hours value are of 87.01 ± 0.06% for bleaching chlorination effluent and above 100% for extraction effluent. Subchronic toxicity for chlorination unit showed the enhancement of 40% OMF for 28 days, while there is no AOX compounds accumulation found in the animal tissue.

 

INTISARI

Penelitian tingkat toksisitas air limbah proses pemutihan pulp terhadap ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio L.) telah dilakukan. Metoda penelitian mengacu pada standar OECD 203-1992. Air limbah diambil dari proses pemutihan pulp konvensional pada unit tahap klorinasi dan tahap ekstraksi yang masing-masing mengandung AOX 33,04 mg/L dan 20,06 mg/L. Penelitian dilakukan dalam 2 tahap yaitu penelitian toksisitas akut (selama 4 hari) dan toksisitas subkronis (selama 28 hari). Parameter yang diuji adalah jumlah kematian ikan, frekwensi gerakan operkulum dan kandungan AOX dalam jaringan tubuh ikan.

Hasil percobaan toksisitas akut menunjukkan bahwa air limbah unit klorinasi lebih toksik daripada air limbah unit ekstraksi, dengan nilai LC50-96 jam 87,01 ± 0,06% untuk air limbah unit klorinasi dan LC50-96 jam > 100% untuk air limbah unit ekstraksi.  Hasil uji toksisitas subkronis menunjukkan adanya peningkatan Frekwensi Gerakan Operkulum (FGO) ikan yang terdedah air limbah klorinasi 40% selama 28 hari, yang berdampak terhadap penurunan laju pertambahan berat ikan, namun demikian pendedahan selama 28 hari tersebut belum sampai terjadi akumulasi AOX dalam jaringan tubuh ikan.  

Keywords

bleaching chlorination-extraction effluent; AOX; Cyprinus carpio L.; LC50; acute and sub-chronic toxicity; operculum movement frequency (OMF)

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